As part of this agreement, signed by the U.S. Governor of Mindanao and Sulu Frank W. Carpenter with the Sultan of Sulu, they waived the right of the Sultan and his heirs to sovereignty over time, tax collection, and arbitration. Idjirani said that, as part of the agreement, the United States had also agreed “to grant full protection to the Sultan of Sulu if the issue of Sabah arises in the future between the sultanate and a foreign authority.” Rappler`s latest stories about the Kiram Carpenter Agreement of 1915 In addition, a subsequent confirmation of the cession agreement between the Sultan of Sulu and the British government of 1903 confirmed the agreement of the Sultan of Sulu to the treaty of 1878, that is, it has the form of a surrender.   Throughout the British administration of North Borneo, the British government continued to pay the annual “surrender indemnity” to the Sultan and his heirs, and these payments were explicitly recorded in receipts as “assignment indemnity”.  At a conference held in London in 1961, at which a Filipino and British body met to discuss the Philippine claim to North Borneo, the British body informed MP Salonga that the text of the receipts had not been challenged by either the Sultan or his heir.  At a Maphilindo meeting between Philippine, Malay, and Indonesian authorities in 1963, the Philippine government said the Sultan of Sulu wanted the Malaysian government to pay 5,000.  Malaysia`s first prime minister at the time, Tunku Abdul Rahman, said he would return to Kuala Lumpur and answer the question.  Since then, the Malaysian embassy in the Philippines has made a check for RM5,300 (about $77,000 or $1,710) to the lawyer for the heirs of the Sultan of Sulu. Malaysia sees the comparison as an annual “surrender payment” for the controversial state, while the sultan`s descendants view it as “rent.”  However, these payments were suspended from 2013 following the attempted invasion of Sabah, as Malaysia considered it a violation of the Confirmation of Cession Agreement of 1903 and its previous Agreement of 1878.
 After the death of Mahakuttah A. Kiram, the Philippine government did not formally recognize a new sultan. Mahakutta Crown Prince Muedzul Lail Kiram, heir to the throne from 1915 to 1986, was 20 years after his father`s death.  Due to his young age, he failed to claim the throne at a time of political instability in the Philippines that led to the peaceful revolution and subsequent impeachment of President Marcos. . . .